Essentials of Global Health Quiz

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Essentials of Global Health Quiz

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Week- 1

Key Perspectives on Global Health

 

1.
Question 1
Which of the
following are the most direct determinants of a person’s health?

1 point

A) Genetic make up, sex

B) Education level, access to health services

C) Occupation, access to safe drinking water

2.
Question 2
What is a risk
factor?

1 point

A) The bacteria, parasite, or virus that causes an illness

B) The circumstances under which people live

C) Any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a
disease or injury

3.
Question 3
What is a social determinant of health?

1 point

A) Something to which you are exposed
that predisposes you to illness

B) Conditions in
which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces
and systems shaping the conditions of daily life

C) Your age and sex

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are determinants of why a young child in a low-income country might
get sick and die from diarrhea?

1 point

A) Lack of education of the mother, Lack of access to health
services

B) Exposure to unsafe drinking water, Poor nutritional status
of the child

C) All of the above

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following is the best example of the most direct links between globalization
and health?

1 point

A) The spread of SARS outside of China by those who
traveled to other countries

B) The weak performance of the health system in a low-income
country

C) High ratios of maternal mortality in a number of countries

 

The Global Health Context and Who Plays

1.
Question 1
What are the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)?

1 point

A) A set
of broad-based development goals and accompanying targets that the global
community established in 2015

B) A set of health goals that were to be met in 2015

C) A set of global goals for addressing climate change

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following are the specialized agencies of the United Nations that are most involved
with health?

1 point

A) UNAIDS, The World Bank

B) Care, Save the Children

C) UNICEF,
The World Health Organization (WHO)

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following are examples of bilateral
development assistance agencies involved in global health work?

1 point

A) UNAIDS, The International Monetary Fund (IMF)

B) The
Australian Development Assistance Agency (AUSAID), The British Development
Assistance Agency (DFID)

C) The World Bank, The US Development Assistance Program
(USAID)

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are examples of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
involved in global health work? Check all that apply.

1 point

A) Doctors
without Borders

B) The US Development Assistance
Agency (USAID)

C) UNICEF

D) Save the Children

5.
Question 5
What is a “product
development partnership”?

1 point

A) A for profit-organization that works with others to develop
drugs to meet the health needs of low-income countries

B) A
nonprofit organization that enables the public, private, academic, and
philanthropic sectors to work together to enable research for the development of diagnostics,
drugs, vaccines, and other health tools

 

Week- 2

The State of the World’s Health

1.
Question 1
What is the maternal mortality ratio?

1 point

A) The number of women who die each year in a country

B) The
number of women who die of pregnancy related causes per 100,000 live births

C) The number of women who die of pregnancy related causes per
100,000 women in a country

2.
Question 2
What is the neonatal
mortality rate?

1 point

A) The number of children, under one year of age, who die for
every 10,000 who are born

B) The
number of children under 28 days of age who die for every 1,000 who are born

C) The number of children under 28 days of age who die for
every 10,000 who are born

3.
Question 3
In what two World
Bank regions do you find the lowest life expectancy?

1 point

A) Latin America and the Caribbean and Sub-saharan Africa

B) South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa

C) South
Asia and Sub-saharan Africa

4.
Question 4
As countries get
better developed and people live longer in them, what happens to neonatal deaths,
as a share of all under five child deaths?

1 point

A) They
go up

B) They go down

C) They stay the same

5.
Question 5
In Sub-saharan Africa,
which of the following statements best describes the pattern of under five
child deaths?

1 point

A) About a
third of the deaths occur as neonates, a third between 29 days and one year,
and a third between 1 year and 5 years

B) Almost all of the under five deaths occur in the first 28
days

C) Almost all of the under five deaths occur in the
first year

 

Demography and Global Health

1.
Question 1
The overwhelming
majority of population growth in the next several decades is projected to occur
where?

1 point

A) In today’s high-income countries

B) In what are today the Latin America and the Caribbean and East Asian Regions of the World Bank

C) In today’s low- and middle-income countries

2.
Question 2
The demographic
transition is:

1 point

A) The shift from a pattern of disease that is predominantly
communicable to one that is primarily noncommunicable

B) The
shift from a pattern of high mortality and high fertility to a pattern of low
mortality and low fertility

C) Neither of the above

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Women in low-income countries tend to have more children,
with shorter birth intervals, than women in high-income countries

B) Women in low-income countries tend to have their first birth
at a younger age than women in high-income countries

C) Both of the above

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following is false?

1 point

A) Population aging is occurring in many countries

B) Populations are becoming more urban in many countries

C) The
total fertility rate (the number of children a woman will have over her
lifetime) is growing in a substantial number of countries

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following has a declining population, linked with very low fertility?

1 point

A) Democratic Republic of Congo

B) Brazil

C) Italy

 

The Burden of Disease – The DALY

 

1.
Question 1
A Disability Adjusted
Life Year (DALY) is:

1 point

A) A measure of how long people live a healthy life

B) A
composite health gap measure that takes account of the years of life lost due
to premature death and the years of life spent living with disability

C) A measure of how long people live an unhealthy life

2.
Question 2
When working with
DALYs, the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature death is:

1 point

A) The
difference between the age at which one died and the highest life expectancy
known for people that age

B) The difference between the age at which one died and the
highest life expectancy known for people that age in the country in which the
person died

C) Neither of the above

3.
Question 3

When working with DALYs, Years of Life Lost due
to Disability (YLD) is:

1 point

A) The years spent living with disability

B) The
years spent living with disability, multiplied by the weight assigned to that
disability

C) Neither of the above

4.
Question 4
Which country would
have more DALYs for every 100,000 people in the population?

1 point

A) A relatively healthy population, such as Norway

B) A
relatively unhealthy population, such as Liberia

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) DALYs can be a useful measure of ill health caused by
conditions that disable but don’t necessarily kill, such as mental health

B) DALYs can be a useful measure of ill health for conditions
that can cause substantial disability and disfigurement, such as the neglected
tropical diseases

C) Both of
the above are true

 

What Do People Get Sick, Disabled, and Die From?

1.
Question 1
The epidemiological transition is:

1 point

A) The
shift from a burden of disease that is predominantly communicable to one that
is predominantly noncommunicable

B) The shift from high mortality and high fertility to low
mortality and low fertility

C) The shift from a burden of disease that is predominantly
noncommunicable to one that is predominantly noncommunicable

2.
Question 2
The only region of
the world in which communicable diseases continue to be the majority of total
deaths is:

1 point

A) South Asia

B) The Middle East and North Africa

C) Sub-saharan
Africa

3.
Question 3
Over the last several
decades, which of the following has been true globally:

1 point

A) The share of total deaths attributable to communicable diseases and injuries has increased

B) The share of total deaths attributable to noncommunicable diseases and injuries has
increased

C) The share of total deaths attributable to injuries has
decreased

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following is the most important cause of death globally for all ages and both
sexes?

1 point

A) Malaria

B) HIV

C) Ischemic
Heart Disease

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following are likely to be more significant causes of DALYs in sub-Saharan
Africa than in the Middle East and North Africa?

1 point

A) Malaria,
HIV

B) TB, Ischemic Heart Disease

C) Stroke, HIV

6.
Question 6
Which of the
following is likely to be a more significant cause of death in young children
than in adults?

1 point

A) Diarrhea,
Malaria

B) Stroke, HIV

C) Pneumonia, HIV

7.
Question 7
Which of the
following is likely to be a more significant causes of DALYs among females than
males:

1 point

A) Accidents

B) Drowning

C) Mental
Health Disorders

8.
Question 8
In which of the
following countries, ranked from the highest to the lowest income per capita,
would communicable diseases as a share of total deaths be the lowest?

1 point

A) Denmark

B) Brazil

C) Malawi

9.
Question 9
Which of the
following causes would be much more significant for DALYs than for deaths? Check all that apply.

1 point

A) Back and neck pain

B) Mental health disorders

C) The Neglected Tropical Diseases

10.
Question 10
Barring any
unforeseen outbreaks or epidemics of communicable diseases, what would you
expect will happen in the next decade to deaths from communicable diseases as a
share of total deaths in sub-Saharan Africa?

1 point

A) They
will go down

B) They will go up

C) They will stay the same

 

Key Risk Factors for Deaths and DALYs

1.
Question 1
Which of the
following is one of the three most important attributable risk factors for
ischemic heart disease in adults globally?

1 point

A) Tobacco
smoking

B) Unsafe sex

C) Iron deficiency

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following was the most important attributable risk factor for the death of children
under five years of age globally in 2013?

1 point

A) Childhood
undernutrition

B) Iron deficiency

C) Lead

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following was the most important attributable risk factor for deaths in adults
aged 15 to 49 in low- and middle-income countries in 2013?

1 point

A) Unsafe
sex

B) Low fruit

C) High sodium

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following was the most important attributable risk factor for female deaths globally
in 2013?

1 point

A) High
blood pressure

B) Tobacco smoking

C) Iron deficiency

5.
Question 5
If present economic development
trends continue, then over the next two decades what should happen to the
importance of unsafe water as an attributable risk factor for under-five child
death globally?

1 point

A) It
should go down

B) It should go up

C) It should stay the same

 

Week- 3

Value for Money in Global Health

 

1.
Question 1
What is
cost-effectiveness analysis?

1 point

A) An economic tool for deciding what investment is less
expensive

B) An
economic tool for comparing the relative costs to the outcomes of two or more investment
options

C) An economic tool for examining the value of investing in
health

2.
Question 2
Generally, when considering
investments in health, one should:

1 point

A) Choose the least expensive option for the investment

B) Choose the option that produces the highest value of outcomes

C) Choose
the option that produces the least cost approach to achieving the desired
outcome, or yields the most outcome for the cost

3.
Question 3
When using
cost-effectiveness analysis, one should:

1 point

A) Consider
the conclusions of the analysis in light, among other things, of equity
concerns; the burden of disease; and the extent to which the investment serves
society as a whole

B) Consider only the least-cost approach to
achieving your aim

C) Consider using an approach other than the one that provides
the maximum gain at the least cost

4.
Question 4
What is the meaning
of “it matters more how you spend your money on health than how much you
spend”?

1 point

A) Most countries have more than enough money to spend on
health

B) Most countries never have enough to spend on
health

C) Even if
your country may need to spend more money on health, it is critical to ensure
it gets the best value for the money it does spend

5.
Question 5
If you were the
minister of finance of a low-income country, you should try to make your
country like those that:

1 point

A) Spend a relatively high amount on health but have a country with low life expectancy

B) Spend a relatively low amount on health but have high life expectancy

C) Spend a relatively high amount on health and have a country with high life expectancy

 

The Organization and Aims of Health Systems

1.
Question 1
The World Health
Organization (WHO) defines a health system as:

1 point

A) Health services and health providers

B) Health services and health providers

C) All the
activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and/or maintain health

2.
Question 2
In the WHO health
systems framework, the aim of a health system is to:

1 point

A) Provide
health services, in responsive and efficient ways, in a manner that enables
better health and protects people financially from the costs of health services

B) Provide health services and health insurance

C) Provide financial protection for health and basic health
services

3.
Question 3
The WHO health
systems framework also suggests that some of the key functions of a health
system include:

1 point

A) Having the right staff in the right place at the right time
with the right skills, coupled with a good management information system, and a
system for financial protection

B) Providing equitable access to medical products, vaccines,
and technologies and a leadership, governance, and management system that helps
to get the best value for money from health investments

C) All of the above

4.
Question 4
Some of the best
examples of a “pluralistic health system” are:

1 point

A) The United Kingdom, Germany

B) Cuba, Japan

C) The United States, Nigeria

5.
Question 5
The Alma Ata
Conference outlined an approach to primary health care that focused on:

1 point

A) The universal
and affordable provision of basic preventive, promotive, and curative health
services at the community level, linked with investments in some of the key
determinants of health, such as water supply, sanitation, and hygiene

B) The provision of a primary care physician in every community

C) The provision of community-based insurance schemes in all
rural areas

 

Health Expenditure, the Quest for UHC, and Pharmaceuticals

 

1.
Question 1
What are examples of
key governance and management issues in the health systems of low- and
middle-income countries?

1 point

A) Lack of
trained health administrators and managers, corruption

B) Insufficient financing

C) Poorly trained providers who are insufficient in number and
badly distributed

2.
Question 2
What are some of the
most important concerns about human resources for health in low- and
middle-income countries?

1 point

A) Staff absenteeism

B) Poorly trained providers who are insufficient in number and
badly distributed

C) All of the above

3.
Question 3
What are some of the
measures that evidence shows can be taken to effectively and efficiently address
key issues in human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries?

1 point

A) Performance
based financing, task shifting

B) Put more sanctions on staff who do not come to work or
perform there

C) Recruit only staff with more advanced training

4.
Question 4
What are some of the
key financing issues faced by the health systems of low and middle-income
countries?

1 point

A) Insufficient funding, misallocation between needs and
investments

B) Weak government tax base, limited ability to raise health
expenditure in the short term

C) All of the above

5.
Question 5
What are some of the
measures that evidence shows can be taken to strengthen the financing of health
systems in resources scarce countries?

1 point

A) Broaden the tax base

B) Increase the share of the budget going to health

C) All of the above

6.
Question 6
What is “Universal
Health Coverage?”

1 point

A) The provision to the whole population of health insurance

B) The
provision to the whole population of an agreed package of services, linked to
the provision of health insurance in a way that is meant to offer financial
protection from health costs

C) The provision to the poor of publicly
supported health insurance

7.
Question 7
When a country
designs program of “Universal Health Coverage” what fundamental questions should be addressed?

1 point

A) Who should be covered?

B) What services should be covered?

C) How much users should be expected to contribute to the
costs of care?

8.
Question 8

Which of the following is an example of demand-side
Results-Based Financing?

1 point

A) Providing
incentive payments to families that take their children for well-child care and
send them to school for an agreed share of school sessions

B) Providing incentive payments to health providers who meet
agreed targets for vaccinating children

C) Providing incentive payments to hospitals that improve their
efficiency along lines agreed with the health system management

9.
Question 9
Which of the
following is an example of supply-side Results-Based Financing?

1 point

A) Providing incentive payments to families that take their
children for well-child care and send them to school for an agreed share of
school sessions

B) Contracting an NGO to provide services in rural regions

C) Providing
incentive payments to hospitals that improve their efficiency along lines
agreed with health system management

10.
Question 10
If you were managing
a health system in a low-income country, which of the following would you want
to realize:

1 point

A) High expenditures, high life expectancy

B) Low expenditures, high life expectancy

C) Low expenditures, low life expectancy

 

 

Week- 4

Health Disparities

1.
Question 1
When one speaks of
“equity” related to global health, one is broadly referring to issues of:

1 point

A) Gender differences

B) Income differences

C) Fairness
in opportunities to achieve good health

2.
Question 2
The best definition
of “health disparities” below is:

1 point

A) Fairness of access to health services

B) Fairness of financial contribution to health

C) Differences
in opportunities or outcomes in health which are usually linked with social or
economic disadvantage

3.
Question 3
When considering
health equity and inequity, we should consider:

1 point

A) Health status, access to health services, protection from
financial risks

B) Protection from financial risks, the fairness of health
financing, distribution of health benefits

C) All of
the above

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following factors might relate to disparities in health:

1 point

A) Income, gender, level of education

B) Age, income, occupation

C) All of
the above

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following groups would we expect to have higher levels of immunization in a
low-income country:

1 point

A) Educated,
higher-income, urban

B) Less educated, middle-income, urban

C) Less educated, lower-income, rural

6.
Question 6
Which of the
following would we expect to have higher levels of maternal mortality in a
low-income country:

1 point

A) Minority
ethnic group, minority language group

B) Educated, urban

C) Majority ethnic and linguistic group

 

The Environment and Health and Climate Change and Health

1.
Question 1
According to the WHO,
“environmental health” broadly speaking refers to:

1 point

A) Health related to air pollution

B) Measures taken to address health related to poor water
quality

C) Those
aspects of human health that are determined by physical, chemical, biological,
social, and psychosocial factors in the environment

2.
Question 2
Some examples of
environmental health related issues include:

1 point

A) Unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, improper hygiene

B) Climate change, ozone depletion

C) All of
the above

3.
Question 3
WHO suggests that
about what share of deaths worldwide annually are attributable to environmental
risk factors:

1 point

A) 5%

B) 25%

C) 50%

4.
Question 4
Some of the key
sources of indoor air pollution in low-income countries include:

1 point

A) Automobiles

B) Chemicals

C) Cooking
with bio-fuels with inadequate ventilation

5.
Question 5
The impact of unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene falls
disproportionately on:

1 point

A) Adult females

B) Adult males

C) Young
children

 

Nutrition and Global Health

 

1.
Question 1
What is low
birthweight:

1 point

A) Birthweight less than 1000 grams

B) Birthweight less than 5000 grams

C) Birthweight less than 2500 grams

2.
Question 2
What is “underweight”
in a child?

1 point

A) Low height for age

B) Low weight for age

C) Low weight for height

3.
Question 3
What is “stunting?”

1 point

A) Low height for age

B) Low weight for height

C) Low weight for age

4.
Question 4
What is obesity?

1 point

A) Body mass index of 18

B) Body
mass index greater than or equal to 30

C) Body mass index between 20 and 25

5.
Question 5
Which two World Bank
regions have the highest rate of stunting:

1 point

A) South Asia, Africa

B) Africa, East Asia and the Pacific

C) Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia

6.
Question 6
Which two World Bank
regions have the highest rate of wasting:

1 point

A) South Asia, Africa

B) Africa, East Asia and the Pacific

C) Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia

7.
Question 7
Deficiencies in which
two micronutrients are most associated with young child death:

1 point

A) Vitamin D, Iron

B) Iodine, Vitamin A

C) Vitamin A, Zinc

8.
Question 8
Which factors are
most associated with obesity?

1 point

A) Lack of Vitamin A, Lack of physical exercise

B) Diet high in sugar, Lack of physical exercise

C) Lack of Vitamin A, Diet high in sugar

9.
Question 9
WHO recommends that
infants should be exclusively breastfeed for:

1 point

A) 3 months

B) 6 months

C) 9 months

10.
Question 10
Ensuring populations
get enough iodine has generally been addressed through:

1 point

A) Iodine injections

B) Iodine supplements

C) Salt fortification with iodine

11.
Question 11
Trying to ensure good
nutritional status of young children, depends on nutrition sensitive investments such as:

1 point

A) Investments
to improve crop yields; vaccination

B) Micronutrient fortification, micronutrient supplementation

C) Provision of “food as medicine”, micronutrient
supplementation

 

 

Week- 5

Women’s Health

1.
Question 1
Which are among the
three leading causes of death of women worldwide?

1 point

A) Stroke,
ischemic heat disease, lower respiratory infections

B) Diarrheal diseases, HIV, diabetes,

C) Tuberculosis, hypertension, malaria

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Women have less biological risk of getting HIV infection
than men have

B) Women
have more biological risk of getting HIV infection than men have

C) Women have the same biological risk of getting HIV infection
as men have

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following is most true about unsafe abortion?

1 point

A) There
are more than 20 million unsafe abortions per year and they are related to more
than 10% of maternal deaths

B) There are more than 1 million unsafe abortions per year and
they are not a significant cause of maternal death

C) There are more than 10 million unsafe abortions per year

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are among the most important risk factors for maternal death?

1 point

A) Young age at first birth, poor maternal nutrition

B) Closely spaced births, lack of access to emergency obstetric
care

C) All of
the above

5.
Question 5
In what ways does
“family planning save lives?”

1 point

A) Enables delay in the age at first birth, enables increasing
birth intervals

B) Enables reducing the total number of pregnancies, enables increasing
birth intervals

C) All of
the above

 

 

Child Health

 

1.
Question 1
Which two World Bank
regions have the highest neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and
under-five child mortality rate?

1 point

A) Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa

B) Africa,
South Asia

C) East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia

2.
Question 2
As countries get
richer and healthier, we should expect neonatal deaths as a share of total
under-five child deaths to:

1 point

A) Go up

B) Go down

C) Stay the same

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following should we expect to see in the five leading causes of death of
children under-five years of age in low- and middle-income countries?

1 point

A) Lower
respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases

B) Diarrheal diseases, road traffic injuries

C) Lower respiratory infections, drowning

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are NOT among the ten leading risk factors for young child death in
low- and middle-income countries?

1 point

A) Unsafe water, unsafe sanitation, sub-optimal breastfeeding

B) Household air pollution, Vitamin A deficiency

C) Alcohol
use, secondhand smoke

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following are part of an “essential package” of services for reducing young
child death?

1 point

A) Early and exclusive breastfeeding for six months, hygienic
introduction of diverse complimentary foods, oral rehydration

B) Vaccination, bednets for malaria, treatment of pneumonia

C) All of
the above

 

Childhood Immunization

1.
Question 1
Some of the key
benefits to immunization include:

1 point

A) Reducing potentially substantial amounts of disease at low
cost, conveying immunity even on those not vaccinated through herd immunity

B) Promoting economic development through keeping people
healthy, reducing the need for antibiotics

C) All of
the above

2.
Question 2
The original expanded
program on immunization included which of the following vaccines? Check all that apply.

1 point

A) Measles

B) TB

C) Pneumococcal

D) rotavirus

E) Polio

F) DPT

3.
Question 3
Later, the global
immunization program added which vaccine that is effectively a “vaccine against
cancer?”

1 point

A) Yellow fever

B) Pneumococcal

C) Hepatitis
B

4.
Question 4
Later still, the
program added which of the following other vaccines that prevent cancer?

1 point

A) Hemophilus influenza type b

B) Meningitis

C) Human
pappiloma virus (HPV)

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following vaccine preventable diseases is close to eradication globally?

1 point

A) Polio

B) Measles

C) Yellow fever

 

 

Week- 6

Adolescent Health

1.
Question 1
An adolescent is
someone between the following ages:

1 point

A) 5 to 14

B) 10 to 19

C) 10 to 24

2.
Question 2
When considering road
traffic deaths among adolescents globally, you would expect:

1 point

A) These accidents would cause more deaths among females than
males

B) These accidents would cause more deaths among males than females

C) These accidents would cause an almost equal number of deaths among males and females

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following is true for adolescents globally?

1 point

A) Mental health disorders cause more DALYs for females than males

B) Mental health disorders cause more DALYs for males than females

C) Mental health disorders cause an almost equal number of DALYs for males and females

4.
Question 4
Measures to reduce
deaths among adolescents from road traffic injuries include:

1 point

A) Better driver training

B) Graduated licensing

C) All of
the above

5.
Question 5
Measures to reduce
the burden of mental health disorders among adolescents include:

1 point

A) Reduce some of the risk factors for such disorders, such as bullying, child abuse, and
the stressors of poverty

B) Reduce tobacco consumption among adolescents

C) Keep adolescents in school longer

 

Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

1.
Question 1
A refugee is:

1 point

A) A person forced to leave their home who stays inside his
home country

B) A
person who leaves his home country for another country and, related to fear of
persecution, is unable
or unwilling to return to his home country

C) A person living in a country outside their home country

2.
Question 2
An internally
displaced person is:

1 point

A) Someone
who is forced to leave their home for fear of persecution but who stays within
his own country

B) A person who leaves his home country for another country,
related to fear of persecution

C) All of the above

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following types of natural disasters is associated with the most deaths?

1 point

A) Tsunamis

B) Volcanoes

C) Earthquakes

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Natural disasters kill more people than complex emergencies

B) Complex
emergencies kill more people than natural disasters

C) Natural disasters and complex emergencies kill about the
same number of people

5.
Question 5
Refugee camps that
are being established during complex emergencies need to pay particular
attention to which two health conditions?

1 point

A) Meningitis

B) HIV

C) TB

D) Cholera

E) Measles

 

 

Week- 7

Emerging and Remerging ID and Anti-microbial Resistance

 

1.
Question 1
Some recent examples
of emerging infectious diseases include: (Check all that apply.)

1 point

SARS

TB

MERS

Hepatitis

HIV

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following are most associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases?

1 point

A) Spread of human populations into animal habitat, growing
international commerce

B) Climate change, war and famine

C) All of
the above

3.
Question 3
Some of the factors
contributing to the growth of drug resistance include:

1 point

A) Inappropriate prescribing practices, failure by patients to
take all their medicines

B) Counterfeiting of drugs, inappropriate use of antibiotics in
animals

C) All of
the above

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following is most true?

1 point

A) Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have few
economic costs

B) The
economic costs of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases can be enormous

C) The economic costs of emerging and reemerging infectious
diseases is mostly related to how many people die of the disease

5.
Question 5
Some key measures to
reduce the development of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases include:

1 point

A) Improve land use planning, improve public education about
these diseases

B) Share information on such diseases across countries,
strengthen implementation of the International Health Regulations

C) All of
the above

6.
Question 6
Some key measures to
reduce drug resistance could include:

1 point

A) Reduce the use of antibiotics in livestock, raise public
awareness of the problem

B) Strengthen disease surveillance within and across countries,
strengthen the implementation of the International Health Regulations

C) All of
the above

 

 

HIV

1.
Question 1
In what ways can the
HIV virus be transmitted:

1 point

A) Unprotected sexual intercourse, through transfusion with
infected blood, or the sharing of needles with someone who is HIV positive

B) Mother to child transmission, transplantation of HIV infected
tissues

C) All of
the above

2.
Question 2
Which route of
transmission is the most likely to lead to an infection:

1 point

A) Transfusion
with HIV infected blood

B) Unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse

C) Needle stick

3.
Question 3
In southern Africa,
which of the following is the main route of transmission of HIV infection:

1 point

Needle sharing among injecting drug users

Men who have unprotected sex with men

Unprotected
heterosexual sex

4.
Question 4
Which World Bank
region has the highest rate of adult prevalence of HIV:

1 point

A) The Middle East and North Africa

B) East Asia and the Pacific

C) Africa

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following best represents the global goals for treatment of HIV:

1 point

A) 20/20/20 by 2025 – 20% of the population will know their HIV
status, 20% will receive anti-retroviral therapy, and 20% will have a
suppressed viral load

B) 50/50/50 by 2025 – 50% of the population will know their HIV
status, 50% will receive anti-retroviral therapy, and 50% will have a
suppressed viral load

C) 90/90/90
by 2020 – 90% of the population will know their HIV status, 90% will receive
anti-retroviral therapy, and 90% will have a suppressed viral load

 

 

Tuberculosis (TB)

1.
Question 1
How is TB spread:

1 point

A) Water

B) Bodily fluids

C) Aerosol
drops

2.
Question 2
What is latent TB:

1 point

A) TB
infection inside someone’s body that does not cause active TB disease

B) Active TB disease outside the lungs

C) Both of the above

3.
Question 3
Why is HIV so
important for TB?

1 point

A) People with TB who are HIV-positive are easier to treat than
people with TB who are HIV-negative

B) TB is
an opportunistic infection of HIV and latent TB has a much greater chance of
becoming active TB disease in HIV-positive people than in HIV-negative people

C) Both of the above

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Men get
active TB disease more than women do

B) Women get active TB disease more than men do

C) Men and women get active TB disease at the same rates

5.
Question 5
One can get drug-resistant
TB in the following ways?

1 point

A) Failure to take the full course of drug therapy for TB

B) Getting infected by a person with drug resistant TB

C) Both of
the above

 

Malaria

1.
Question 1
What is malaria:

1 point

A) A bacterial disease spread through aerosol drops

B) A viral disease spread sexually

C) A
parasitic disease spread through the bite of a female anopheles mosquito

2.
Question 2
The people who suffer
the most deaths from malaria are:

1 point

A) Older males

B) Older females

C) Young
children and pregnant women

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) The
largest number of malaria cases is in the World Bank region of sub-Saharan
Africa

B) The largest number of malaria cases is in the World Bank
East Asia and the Pacific region

C) The largest number of malaria cases is in the World Bank
region of Latin America and the Caribbean

4.
Question 4
The economic costs of
malaria are:

1 point

A) Small and can be ignored

B) Estimated
to be around 1% of Gross Domestic Product in one region

C) Impossible to measure

5.
Question 5
Some of the central
approaches to reducing malaria include:

1 point

A) Prompt and confirmed diagnosis and appropriate treatment

B) The use of long lasting insecticide treated bednets,
intermittent treatment of pregnant women

C) All of
the above

 

 

Week- 8

Neglected Tropical Diseases

1.
Question 1
What are the
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)?

1 point

A) A group of bacterial diseases that cause widespread death

B) A group
of 17 parasitic and bacterial diseases, that are largely prevalent in tropical
and sub-tropical regions

C) A group of 7 viral diseases common in Africa

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following are considered to be NTDs?

1 point

A) Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil transmitted
helminthes

B) Trachoma, Guinea worm, schistosomiasis

C) All of
the above

3.
Question 3
NTDs affect:

1 point

A) Tens of millions of people worldwide

B) More than one hundred million people worldwide

C) About
one billion people worldwide

4.
Question 4
The NTDs, such as
lymphatic filariasis:

1 point

A) Are associated with high mortality rates

B) Are
associated with high rates of disability

C) Both of the above

5.
Question 5
The approach to addressing
soil transmitted helminths, onchocerciasis, and schistosomiasis is based on:

1 point

A) Vaccination

B) Continuous drug therapy

C) Mass
drug administration

 

 

Overview of Non-Communicable Diseases, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Diabetes

1.
Question 1
Check all the examples of
noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

1 point

A) Heart disease

B) TB

C) Stroke

D) Malaria

E) Diabetes

F) HIV

2.
Question 2
As the per capita
income of a country grows, you would expect the share of deaths related to NCDs
to:

1 point

A) Grow

B) Fall

C) Stay the same

3.
Question 3
Some of the most
important risk factors for death from ischemic heart disease and stroke
include:

1 point

A) Hypertension, diet high in salt, obesity

B) Diabetes, overweight, tobacco smoking

C) All of
the above

4.
Question 4
The leading cause of
death worldwide now, for both sexes and all ages is:

1 point

A) Ischemic
heart disease

B) HIV

C) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

5.
Question 5
Key features of NCDs
in low- and middle-income countries are:

1 point

A) They have much lower rates of incidence and much lower
mortality rates than they do in high-income countries

B) They
appear at earlier ages and have higher mortality rates than in high-income
countries

C) They have higher rates of incidence than in high-income
countries

 

 

Cancer and Diabetes

1.
Question 1
What percentage of
all deaths each year were due to all forms of cancer in 2010?

1 point

A) 5%

B) 15%

C) 35%

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) The cancer that is most prevalent is the same across all
regions

B) In
different regions, different forms of cancer are most prevalent

C) The leading causes of cancer for males and females are the
same

3.
Question 3
Some of the leading
risk factors for cancer include:

1 point

A) Tobacco smoking, diet high in red meat

B) Exposure to asbestos, alcohol

C) All of
the above

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are “cancer vaccines?” Check all that apply.

1 point

A) Human
papilloma virus

B) Hepatitis B

C) Measles

E) Polio

F) DTP

5.
Question 5
Which of the
following is correct?

1 point

A) The most prevalent type of diabetes is Type 1

B) The
most prevalent form of diabetes is Type 2

C) Type 1 and Type 2 are equally prevalent

 

 

Week- 9

Alcohol and Tobacco

1.
Question 1
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Globally,
males smoke tobacco more than females

B) Globally, females smoke tobacco more than males

C) Globally, females and males smoke tobacco at about the same
rate

2.
Question 2
Globally, which of
the following is true?

1 point

A) The lower the income, the less people smoke tobacco

B) The
higher the income, the less people smoke tobacco

C) Tobacco smoking is about the same for all socio-economic
groups

3.
Question 3
The World Health
Organization recommends that national efforts to reduce tobacco consumption
should include:

1 point

A) Higher tobacco taxes, a ban on advertising tobacco, nicotine
replacement therapy

B) Restricting the places at which people can smoke, placing
warning labels on tobacco products, restricting sales to minors

C) All of
the above

4.
Question 4
High risk drinking is
associated with:

1 point

A) Liver damage, pancreatic damage

B) Accidents, injuries, interpersonal violence

C) All of
the above

5.
Question 5
Efforts to reduce excessive
alcohol consumption should include:

1 point

A) Restricting sales hours, restricting sales to minors

B) Offering brief counseling sessions to excessive drinkers,
increasing excise taxes on alcohol for consumption

C) All of
the above

 

 

Mental Health

1.
Question 1
The four most
prevalent mental disorders make up about what percent of DALYs globally?

1 point

A) Less than 1%

B) Almost
5%

C) 20%

2.
Question 2
Which is a more
accurate measure of the ill health attributable to mental disorders:

1 point

A) Deaths

B) DALYs

C) Deaths and DALYs are equally good measures for the health
impact of mental disorders

3.
Question 3
Who is more affected
by depression globally:

1 point

A) Males

B) Females

C) Depression is equally prevalent in males and females

4.
Question 4
Which of the
following are risk factors for mental disorders:

1 point

A) Poverty, low levels of education, genetics

B) Other physical health conditions, physical abuse, low levels
of social support

C) All of
the above

5.
Question 5
There is increasing
evidence that which of the following approaches to addressing mental disorders
can be carried out in cost-efficient ways in low- and middle-income countries:

1 point

A) Hospital-based care provided by psychiatrists

B) Clinic-based care provided by physicians

C) Community-based
care provided by front line workers linked to a referral system

 

 

Injuries

1.
Question 1
Which of the
following unintentional injuries causes the most deaths globally:

1 point

A) Fires

B) Drownings

C) Road
Injuries

2.
Question 2
In the different World
Bank regions, unintentional injuries usually make up what percent of all
deaths?

1 point

A) 1-5%

B) 4 -11%

C) 20 – 30%

3.
Question 3
Which of the
following is true?

1 point

A) Deaths
from road injuries and drownings are more common among males than females

B) Deaths from road injuries and drownings are more common
among females than males

C) Males and females have equal rates of death from road
injuries and drownings

4.
Question 4
Deaths and injuries
from falls are more prevalent among:

1 point

A) Very
young and very old people

B) Males from 30 to 50 years of age

C) Females from 25 to 50 years of age

5.
Question 5
Some of the measures
that countries can take to reduce road injuries include:

1 point

A) Road calming measures, such as speed bumps, graduated
licensing of young drivers

B) Better enforcement of speed limits, better enforcement of
drunk driving laws

C) All of
the above

 

 

Week- 10

Science and Technology for Global Health

1.
Question 1
What would be some of
the ideal properties of drugs to meet the health needs of poor people in
low-income countries:

1 point

A) Inexpensive, long shelf life, heat stable

B) Few side effects, highly effective against multiple forms of
disease, easy to take

C) All of
the above

2.
Question 2
Which of the
following are constraints to the more rapid development of drugs, diagnostics
and vaccines to meet the health needs of poor people in low- and middle-income
countries?

1 point

A) Perception
that there is no market for such diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines

B) Perception that such diagnostics, drugs and vaccines are
scientifically to difficult to produce

C) All of the above

3.
Question 3
Push mechanisms are
meant to:

1 point

A) Lower the cost of developing new drugs by ensuring a market
for such drugs or cash prizes for their development

B) Lower
the cost of developing new drugs by incentivizing research and development
through tax credits, direct financing of research and development, and assistance
in financing clinical trials

C) All of the above

4.
Question 4
An example of a
Product Development Partnership would be:

1 point

A) UNICEF

B) Merck Pharmaceuticals

C) The
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)

5.
Question 5
The Advance Market
Commitment can best be thought of as:

1 point

A) A prize for product development

B) A “pull
mechanism” that in which some better-off countries offer eventual financing for
a product if it is developed and made available at an agreed price to those who
need it in certain low- and middle-income countries,

C) A “Push Mechanism” for product development