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Water Resources Management and Policy Quiz

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Water Resources Management and Policy Quiz

Offered By ”University of Geneva”

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Module 1 Quiz

1.
Question 1

Over
time, water use tends to…

1 point

  • simply
    increase and place pressure on the resource.
  • stays stable.
  • increase and
    diversify.
  • decrease due to a more rational use of the resource.

2.
Question 2

If the fruit is consumed at a higher rate than
stock renewal capacity, it then becomes…

1 point

  • a balanced situation.
  • a situation of under-exploitation.
  • a situation of overexploitation.

3.
Question 3

Which of the below are defining characteristics of
a natural resource?

1 point

  • The interaction with a production system.
  • The ability to self-reproduce.
  • The existence of biotic and mineral resources.

4.
Question 4

A use rivalry is a situation where…

1 point

  • there is a conflict.
  • the law regulates different withdrawals from the resource system.
  • there is an overexploitation of the resource stock.
  • there is competition for use of the resource.

5.
Question 5

What are the characteristics of common-pool resources (multiple correct answers)?

1 point

  • Absence of rivalries
  • Strong subtractabillity
  • Difficult to exclude

6.
Question 6

According to Garrett Hardin, the tragedy of the
commons…

1 point

  • is caused by institutions who cause
    overexploitation.
  • is inevitable as long as free access to the
    resource is guaranteed.
  • can easily be prevented if users interact with each
    other to save the resource.
  • can be
    avoided because the user is always in a position to see how the condition of
    the resource evolves.

7.
Question 7

Which element is not considered to be part of the
tragedy of the commons problem, as described in the article “Private water
raiding threatens Angkor’s temples built on sand” (The Guardian, 27.9.10) ?

1 point

  • Lack of information about the effect of withdrawals
    on the collapse of the temple
  • Lack of regulation as regards to water
    withdrawals.
  • Lack of information concerning water quality.
  • Lack of information about the quantity of water
    available.

8.
Question 8

To fight against the tragedy of the commons,
what is the solution?

1 point

  • Privatize, involve the state or promote community
    management.
  • Privatize the resource.
  • Privatize or involve the state.
  • Maintain free access to the resource and
    allow users to behave as they wish.

9.
Question 9

In the case of the pastures of Törbel
(Switzerland), community management has remained alive because…

1 point

  • the commune does not want to assume the
    management of the pasture.
  • agriculture has disappeared and pastures are of no
    interest to anyone.
  • private ownership would be ineffective because
    grass quality varies from year to year and collective ownership is therefore
    more efficient.
  • users have not realised that private ownership is
    much more effective than community management.

10.
Question 10

According to Elinor Ostrom, community
organisation…

1 point

  • does not work because users can not manage to
    coordinate themselves.
  • requires a strong hierarchy to force actors to coordinate.
  • leads to overexploitation.
  • must use the principle of reciprocity where each
    user can participate in the decision, equally and openly.

11.
Question 11
What
is the Network of Social and Community Organisations for the Water Management in Ecuador (ROSCGAE)?

1 point

  • An intercommunity network
  • A public-community alliance
  • A state agency
  • A private company

12.
Question 12
What vision of water does the Confederation
of Latin American Community Water and Sanitation Organizations (CLOCSAS) want to disseminate?

1 point

  • Asanti-privatization
  • Associativity
  • As a commodity
  • As a free resource

 

 

Quiz of Module 2

1.
Question 1

The Institutional Resource Regime includes all
public policies for a given resource. True or False?

1 point

False. The regime also includes formal property
titles on the resource.

False. The regime
includes the whole system of property rights: property titles, disposition
rights and use rights.

False. The actors are completely free and use the
resource as they see fit, regardless of public policies.

True. Public policies can fully regulate the use of
the resource and the behaviour of actors.

2.
Question 2

A
greater regime extent allows a more efficient management of the resource. True
or false?

1 point

False. It is the coherence of the regime and its
rules that allows us to evaluate the regime’s ability to achieve effective
management of the resource.

False. In addition to the extent of the regime, we
must also take into account the coherence of rules as regards to public
policy and the property rights system.

False. A regime with too much extent does not leave enough
space to effectively manage the resource.

True. The greater the number of goods and services
regulated by the regime, the more efficient and sustainable the means of
management.

3.
Question 3
How did the Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) in Switzerland
evolve over its last three phases?

1 point

Integrated-integrated-integrated

Complex-complex-integrated (research)

Complex – complex – simple

Simple-complex-integrated

4.
Question 4

What are the main difficulties for development
of the Institutional Resource Regime (IRR) in the European Union?

1 point

Increasing its coherence

An increase in extent and coherence.

The increase in extent.

The reduction of its extent.

5.
Question 5

With a set of important common rules, water
governance in the EU…

1 point

resolves governance problems.

is split by the diversity of cases.

is harmonized.

ensures sustainable resource use.

6.
Question 6

What
are the differences between a “top-down” and a “bottom-up” implementation
vision?

1 point

The bottom-up vision is the only vision concerned
with the social interaction between actors.

The top-down vision concerns the institutional
regime; the bottom-up vision concerns local regulatory arrangements.

The top-down vision is centred on the realisation of legal objectives; the bottom-up vision on problem solving.

The bottom-up vision denies the structuring nature
of rules derived from the institutional regime.

7.
Question 7

Law
activation strategies…

1 point

aim to empty the institutional regime of
substance.

aim to establish the rules issued by the institutional regime.

are a means for actors to achieve their goals.

may be passive in a strategy of non-decision.

8.
Question 8

Local Regulatory Arrangements (LRA or ARL in French) …

1 point

regroup the practical arrangements of the resource
of “water”.

are faithful to the rules issued by the
institutional regime of the resource “water”.

include general and abstract rules that regulate
the resource “water”.

are consensual.

9.
Question 9

In the case of artificial snow production in Veysonnaz,
which started mid-October…

1 point

the institutional regime was bypassed.

the commune is trying to enforce the institutional regime.

the institutional regime is applied.

we are witnessing a gap in the institutional regime.

 

 

 

Quiz of Module 3

1.
Question 1

What are the difficulties associated with
multi-sector regulation?

1 point

 

The fact that many users are dependent on the
same resource.

 

The importance of use rivalries.

Coordination between very different uses.

2.
Question 2
Which principle does not fit directly
into the definition of IWRM?

1 point

Stakeholder
participation

The “polluter pays” principle

The integration of ecological, social and
economic objectives to attain multiple and cross-cutting benefits.

The sectorial approach

3.
Question 3

The case of the Rhone shows that…

1 point

the situation is increasingly simple.

the watershed is the correct reference
unit.

issues and tensions arise in the evolution from a single function situation of the river use activities to a multifunctional one.

4.
Question 4

For the last fifteen years, the IWRM concept has
been criticized because…

1 point

it integrates too many different activity sectors.

there is vagueness in the implementation of the concept.

it does not reflect the resource management scale.

5.
Question 5

Which element distinguishes the Nexus concept
from the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)?

1 point

The Nexus concept lets us focus mainly on public actors.

The Nexus concept focuses on public participation.

The Nexus concept solidifies the approach on the interactions between different activity sectors.

6.
Question 6
If the decisions taken on infrastructure and development are
key, what influences those decisions (multiple correct answers)?

1 point

Development
priorities as reflected in national and regional development strategies.

Investments
that realise national or regional development strategies

Environmental
policy.

7.
Question 7
In the case of the Columbia River Basin, how can
we consider that the environmental program is a trade-off between electricity
production and ecosystem protection?

1 point

It imposes limits on household
consumption during periods of salmon migration.

It prohibits the construction of new electrical plants.

It proposes actions that limit
hydroelectric production and raises the price of electricity by financing green
projects.

It foresees the deconstruction of
hydroelectric dams to facilitate fish migration.

 

 

Quiz of Module 4

1.
Question 1

The concept of watershed management was initially
implemented…

1 point

 

in the 1950s with the rise of environmental
concerns.

very recently under the influence of international and non-governmental organisations to protect the environment.

in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with the intensification of industrial water uses far beyond the limits of national and local resource management.

in
the 2000s with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) from the European Union.

2.
Question 2

A functional regulatory space is…

1 point

a
political space dedicated to the management of a resource and rivalries within
a specific perimeter.

a
space managed by a private company.

the
exact perimeter of the water resource: its watershed.

a general institutional territory: a town, a state,
a region.

3.
Question 3

What is the difference between Integrated
Water Resources Management (IWRM) and watershed management?

1 point

Watershed management focuses on electricity production and economic functions.

In
addition to the multi-sector dimension, watershed management requires that the
perimeter of natural water resources be taken into consideration.

Watershed management focuses on the ecological function of watercourses.

None.
These two concepts are synonymous.

4.
Question 4

Watersheds are the most
relevant scales for
water management. True or false?

1 point

True.
This is true because watershed management could have a strong institution that
governs the various users and authorities in their use of the resource.

False.
Watershed boundaries are frequently bypassed by remote uses such as hydro-electricity or agriculture that require coordination beyond the boundary of the watershed.

False.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) allows a sustainable management of
the resource to be achieved.

True.
This is true because the watershed is used to integrate all the users of the
resource from upstream to downstream.

5.
Question 5

In your view, in which year
did the concept of integrated water management emerge in the international
political agenda?

1 point

In 1992, the year of the UN Conference
for the Environment and Development in Dublin (Ireland) and the Earth Summit of
Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

In 1977, during the United Nations Conference
on Water in Mar del Plata (Argentina)

In 1997, during the first World Water Forum in
Marrakesh (Morocco).

6.
Question 6

In your view, how many
concrete examples of integrated watershed management exist in Switzerland?

1 point

Approximately
forty

Approximately thirty

About a dozen

7.
Question 7

The low implementation of the integrated watershed
management concept in Switzerland is because of…

1 point

the
existence of the “executive federalism” and the principle of subsidiarity.

the
large number of river sub-watersheds which must be coordinated.

a
favourable hydrological situation.

8.
Question 8
What was the driving force behind the consideration
of micropollutants in the case of the Rhine?

1 point

Poor water quality

Public mobilization against micropollutants

The decrease in the fish population

9.
Question 9

What are the difficulties to consider in the
implementation of integrated watershed management?

1 point

The
hydrological cycle changes.

The
willingness of political parties

The amount of time necessary to implement the watershed scale management

 

 

Quiz of Module 5

1.
Question 1

In the field of water, which are the most common
transboundary interactions?

1 point

Political conflicts

Cooperation

Violent conflicts and wars

A mixture of cold conflict and cooperation

2.
Question 2
What are the major factors causing tension in the
field of water?

1 point

When
the population does not have sufficient access to drinking water.

It
is the problem of pollution and the deterioration of water quality.

When
countries are less developed.

In
general, it is problems linked to sharing water and the construction of
infrastructure.

3.
Question 3
The hydro-hegemony usually manifests by…

1 point

the
fact that the most economically developed country systematically has dominance
over other riparian countries.

the
fact that the country with the most powerful military exercises its dominance
over other riparian countries.

by
combining three dimensions: power, riparian position and exploitation potential.

the
fact that the upstream countries systematically exert dominance on the
downstream countries.

4.
Question 4

On which element of hydro-hegemony is Egypt’s power based?

 

1 point

On
its military power and its acquired historic rights.

On
its exploitation potential and its regional political and military power.

On
its upstream position.

On
its exploitation potential including hydro-electricity and irrigation.

5.
Question 5

With regards to the concept of hydro-hegemony, for which
reason is the dominance of Egypt challenged by upstream countries such as
Ethiopia?

1 point

Because
these two countries are developing their exploitation potential.

Because
upstream countries simultaneously see their exploitation potential and power
enhanced.

Because
these two countries see their power strengthened through multilateral
agreements on the Nile Basin scale.

6.
Question 6

Minimum cooperation method is …

1 point

notification
and consultation.

the
exchange of information.

joint
monitoring of water resources.

respect
for equitable and reasonable use.

7.
Question 7
Which feature is particularly interesting for
cooperation in the framework of the Senegal River Basin Development Authority (OMVS)?

1 point

The
support of international donors.

The
existence of an international commission.

The
co-ownership of hydraulic plants.

8.
Question 8

International donors provide the majority of
funding for the Mekong Commission. This means that…

1 point

the
mission of the Commission is largely imposed by external actors.

the Commission has substantial resources to conduct its own planning policy.

external
support assigns a essential status to the Commission within the river basin.

9.
Question 9

The method for resolving water-related conflicts
is…

1 point

water diplomacy.

consultation.

the armed settlement of disputes.

the peaceful settlement of disputes.

10.
Question 10

Within international water law, what is the
regime of responsibility used in case of pollution in a river?

1 point

The
civil liability of the company.

The
responsibility of the state for internationally wrongful acts.

The
criminal liability of the individual.

The objective liability of the operator.

 

 

 

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